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FITNESS FOR LIFE (Part 3)

First Thing You Need To Know


By: NGRSr

Energy systems and their relation to exercise

· The chemical compound from which energy is derived and converted.

· The different energy systems:

o Creatine phosphate.

o Lactate.

o Aerobic.

· Training adaptations and their effects on the body.

· The ways in which the different energy systems interact.

Energy is the basic fuel that our bodies need to move, function, grow and repair damaged tissue. This section looks at the chemical compound from which our bodies derive energy, and the ways in which it’s converted, with a focus on the different types of exercise responses.

We will be exploring the different energy systems that respond to exercise – the creatine phosphate system, the lactate system and the aerobic system. We will also be exploring the effects they have and the types of exercise that trigger them.

We will look at different training adaptations and the effects that they have on the body.

Finally, we will look at the way in which the different energy systems interact. We will be exploring their effects fully within the context of exercise and looking at the ways in which they can overlap, depending on intensity and oxygen supply.

Energy currency

· Energy is required for movement, heat generation and tissue growth and repair.

· In the body, energy exists in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

· Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are all sources of energy.

· ATP supply must meet the demands of exercise in order for it to continue.



Notes

· Energy is required for movement, heat generation and tissue growth and repair.

· In the body, energy exists in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

· Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are all sources of energy.

· ATP supply must meet the demands of exercise in order for it to continue.

Structure of ATP

· ATP is made up of one adenosine molecule and three phosphate ones.

· Energy is stored in the bonds that link the phosphate molecules to the adenosine.

· The bonds are broken down by the enzyme ATPase to release energy.

· Muscle ATP stores are limited, so they must be continually replenished by the creatine phosphate, lactate and aerobic energy systems.

                   CYQ file


Notes

· ATP is made up of one adenosine molecule and three phosphate ones.

· Energy is stored in the bonds that link the phosphate molecules to the adenosine.

· The bonds are broken down by the enzyme ATPase to release energy.

· Muscle ATP stores are limited, so they must be continually replenished by the creatine phosphate, lactate and aerobic energy systems.

Creatine phosphate system – immediate energy

· Energy for muscular contraction is required quickly for high-intensity, low duration activities.

· The energy is supplied by intramuscular (inside the muscle) stores of ATP and creatine phosphate.

· ATP and creatine phosphate stores only last for a few seconds – such high intensities can’t be sustained for much longer than this.

· This system is derived exclusively from chemical energy stored in the muscles and requires no oxygen (i.e. it’s anaerobic). 
                                             CYQ file

Notes

· Energy for muscular contraction is needed quickly for high-intensity, low duration activities.

· The energy is supplied by intramuscular (inside the muscle) stores of ATP and creatine phosphate.

· ATP and creatine phosphate stores only last for a few seconds – such high intensities can’t be sustained for much longer than this.

· This system is derived exclusively from chemical energy stored in the muscles and requires no oxygen (i.e. it’s anaerobic).

Aerobic system

· The aerobic energy system produces ATP from the complete breakdown of carbohydrate and fat, in the presence of oxygen.

· Its by-products are carbon dioxide, water and heat.

· No limits on the amounts of ATP that can be produced but the rate of ATP production is limited.

· Recovery time will be the time taken to eat, drink and replenish fuel stores. 

                                                       CYQ file
Off-piste

Fuel and the aerobic system: Fat (fatty acids) and carbohydrate (glucose) are the two macronutrients that supply the body with ATP during aerobic metabolism. Whether the body is at rest or exercising aerobically, both carbohydrate and fat are required, but in varying proportions. Fat is commonly said to ‘burn in a carbohydrate flame,’ meaning that it can’t be broken down without carbohydrate. The relative proportions vary depending on nutritional status and exercise intensity.

The aerobic energy system produces ATP from the complete breakdown of carbohydrate and fat, in the presence of oxygen.

Its by-products are carbon dioxide, water and heat.

No limits on the amounts of ATP that can be produced but the rate of ATP production is limited.

Recovery time will be the time taken to eat, drink and replenish fuel stores.

Pulmonary changes

Higher maximal breathing rate

More efficient respiratory muscles

Cardiovascular changes
Lower resting heart rate

Increased cardiac output

Muscular changes

Increased size and number of mitochondria

Increase in volume of aerobic enzymes

The pulmonary changes are an increase in maximal breathing rate and tidal volume, which leads to a lowered use of oxygen and output of fewer waste products.
Cardiovascular changes in trained hearts include a lower resting heart rate and increased cardiac output.
Muscular changes include improved blood supply to the active muscles, combined with a greater ability to extract and utilise oxygen from the blood. Aerobic training also increases mitochondria and the volume of aerobic enzymes.

Lactate training adaptations

· Lactate training adaptations are related to improvements in the cardiorespiratory system.

· Muscles that utilise more oxygen will produce less lactic acid at a given exercise intensity.

· Regular anaerobic training improves tolerance to waste products.

Notes

· Lactate training adaptations are related to improvements in the cardiorespiratory system.

· Muscles that utilise more oxygen will produce less lactic acid at a given exercise intensity.

· Regular anaerobic training improves tolerance to waste products.

Creatine phosphate training adaptations

· High-intensity activities have a significant training effect.

· They can result in increased muscle mass and a predominance of fast twitch muscle fibres.

· They may also increase muscular stores of anaerobic fuel sources.

Off-piste

· There is still much debate as to whether creatine phosphate training improves the ability of enzymes within these muscles to generate greater amounts of ATP; even now there is little research to support the idea. 
                                             
Notes

· High-intensity activities such as weight lifting have a significant training effect.

· This type of training can result in increased muscle mass and a predominance of fast twitch muscle fibres.

· High-intensity training may also increase muscular stores of anaerobic fuel sources such as ATP, creatine phosphate and glycogen.

Interaction of energy systems

· There is considerable overlap between the three energy systems.

· All three systems could potentially provide the body with energy simultaneously.

· As the demands of the activity change, so do the relative contributions of the energy systems. 

                                                   CYQ file

Off-piste 

Theory to application: As one energy system becomes exhausted, the others can take over. For example, a series of maximal vertical jumps will start off by using the creatine phosphate system which will become exhausted within five to ten jumps. After that, energy will come from the aerobic and lactate systems. Because the aerobic system takes a period of time to meet this increased demand for ATP, the lactate system may well provide the energy in the interim period. Jumping would continue, but performance would decrease because of a build-up of fatiguing waste products.

Notes

· There is considerable overlap between the three energy systems.

· All three systems could potentially provide the body with energy simultaneously.

· As the demands of the activity change, so do the relative contributions of the energy systems.

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