Fitness for Life

1st Thing You Need To Know

By: NGRSr

Anatomy and physiology


1. Understand the heart and circulation and its relationship to exercise and health.

2. Understand the musculoskeletal system and its relation to exercise.

3. Understand posture and core stability.

4. Understand the nervous system and its relation to exercise.

5. Understand the endocrine system and its relation to exercise.

6. Understand energy systems and their relation to exercise.

The heart and circulation


The heart and circulation and its relationship to exercise and health


• The function of the heart valves and coronary circulation.

• The effects of disease processes on the structure and function of blood vessels.

• Blood pressure classifications and the associated health risks.

• The short- and long-term effects of exercise on blood pressure, including the valsalva effect.

• The cardiovascular benefits and risks of endurance aerobic training.

The heart

• The heart is a muscular pump.

• It is located behind and to the right of the sternum.

• It supplies blood to the body’s tissues.

    Web MD


Notes

The main valves of the heart are the atrioventricular valves and the semi-lunar valves. The atrioventricular valves are located between the atria and the ventricles and prevent the back-flow of blood from one to the other. As these valves snap shut, they are anchored in place by tendon-like chords (chordae tendineae), which prevent the valve flaps from being pushed too far into the atria.

The semilunar valves are located at the base of the arteries leaving the heart (aorta and pulmonary artery). During relaxation of the ventricles, these valves are forced shut by blood in the arteries attempting to flow back in to the heart.

The sequential shutting of the valves during the cardiac cycle causes the distinct ‘lub-dub’ noises associated with the heartbeat.

Coronary circulation · Oxygen and nutrients are carried in the blood.

· The coronary circulation is comprised of two branches.

· They supply both the superficial and deep tissues of the heart.

Notes

The heart, like any other living tissue, requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients; these are carried in the blood. The coronary circulation is comprised of two branches, which stem from the base of the aorta – the main artery leaving the left ventricle. These branches are formed by the left and right coronary arteries, which subdivide into a crown-like network of blood vessels. They supply both the superficial and deep tissues of the heart.

Vascular disease · Vascular disease is the narrowing of the blood vessels.

· It’s caused by plaque build-up on the vessel wall. It restricts or prevents blood flow to tissues and organs


SP Gate

Vascular disease describes the narrowing of the blood vessels. It is one of the main causes of death in the developed world. It’s caused by inflammatory responses and the accumulation of mineral, protein and fat deposits, which create a build-up of plaques. This, in turn, restricts blood flow or prevents it completely, starving the tissues of vital nutrients and oxygen.

A combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as family history, diet and smoking, play a role in the gradual build-up of plaque within the vessel walls.

Symptoms of vascular disease include a reduced ability to exercise, bouts of chest pain (angina) and even heart attacks. It is also linked to strokes and kidney disease.

Off-piste The term given to the narrowing of the arteries is atherosclerosis, whereas the term given to the hardening of the vessel walls is arteriosclerosis.

Blood pressure and health risks · Ischemic heart disease, e.g. valve disease and myocardial infarction (heart attack).

· Cerebro-vascular disease, e.g. strokes and degenerative conditions.

Notes · High blood pressure is linked to ischemic heart disease and cerebro-vascular disease – two of the three biggest killers in the developed world. This is why blood pressure is measured to gauge a person’s health.

· Ischemic heart disease covers a variety of heart conditions, including valve disease and more acute problems, such as a myocardial infarction (heart attack).

· Cerebro-vascular disease includes acute problems, including haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, and chronically degenerative conditions, like vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Blood pressure classification · Diastolic blood pressure - Measure of blood pressure between heart contractions

· 140/90 mmHg or above - High blood pressure

· 120/80 mmHg or below - Optimal blood pressure.

· Systolic blood pressure - Measure of blood pressure during heart contractions.

Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure of blood during the relaxation phase of the heartbeat. It is always the lower of the two pressures.

Systolic blood pressure is the pressure of blood during the contraction phase of the heartbeat. It is always the higher of the two pressures.

The average resting blood pressure is defined by the American College of Sports Medicine as 120/ 80 mmHg.

Blood pressure of 140/ 90 mmHg is considered to be high. It is worth noting that individuals with measures above 144/ 94 mmHg are encouraged to see their doctor before commencing physical activity programmes. People with low blood pressure readings may also require medical referral.

Notes Physical activity has both short- and long-term effects on the vascular system.

These include:

· Changes to the heart rate and blood pressure.

· An increase in stroke volume – the volume of blood pumped out per beat.

· A greater cardiac output – total volume of blood pumped per minute.

The short-term changes are natural physiological responses to physical activity, although they may be exaggerated in people who already have high blood pressure.

The long-term changes represent the positive effects of physical activity.

An increase in heart rate will almost always cause a rise in systolic blood pressure, but may not affect the diastolic pressure.

Short-term increases in diastolic blood pressure usually only occur as a result of breath-holding or isometric muscular contractions.

The long-term changes represent the positive effects of physical activity.

The short-term changes are natural physiological responses to physical activity, although they may be exaggerated in people who already have high blood pressure. The long-term changes represent the positive effects of physical activity.

Exercise and blood pressure considerations

· Physical activity carries certain risks to those with pre-existing high blood pressure:

o Further increases in already - high blood pressure.

o Valsava effect – caused by holding your breath while straining.

· For most people, the benefits are likely to outweigh the risks.


CYQ File


Notes

Short-term increases in blood pressure result naturally from physical activity. This means it can carry risks for people with pre-existing high blood pressure, including:

· Elevation of blood pressure to dangerous levels.

· The valsalva effect, which occurs when breath is held while straining and causes rapid, potentially dangerous short-term rises in blood pressure.

For this reason, the risks associated with exercise need to be weighed up against the benefits for certain clients, before they engage in any physical activity – especially if it’s high-intensity.

While physical activity can carry risks for people with pre-existing high blood pressure, for most people, the benefits far outweigh the dangers; sedentary lifestyles are much more unhealthy for the average individual.

Cardiovascular benefits of endurance aerobic training

Aerobic or endurance-based training has been shown to have particularly important benefits on the cardiovascular system. Examples include:

· A greater stroke volume, i.e. more blood pumped per beat.

· A lower relative exercise heart rate, which allows for greater performance potential.

· Stronger, more elastic arteries.

· Lower levels of cholesterol.

· An improved blood supply to the body’s tissues.

· Higher levels of hemoglobin in the blood, which increases its oxygen-carrying capacity.

· Lower blood pressure in the long term.



CYQ File

The heart and circulation 

· The function of the heart valves and coronary circulation.

· The effects of disease processes on the structure and function of blood vessels.

· Blood pressure classifications and the associated health risks.

· The short- and long-term effects of exercise on blood pressure, including the valsalva effect.

· The cardiovascular benefits and risks of endurance aerobic training.

Next Thing You Need To Know

The musculoskeletal system and its relation to exercise

Human movement is achieved by dint of muscle tissue pulling on bone. This section explores the mechanisms of this process and identifies the key structures which it involves, as well as:

· The cellular structure of muscle fibres and sliding filament theory.

· The effects that different exercises have on muscle fibre type.

· The function and location of the skeletal muscle involved in physical activity.

· Joint and muscle actions.

· Axes and planes of movement.

The cellular structure of muscle fibres

Notes

Muscle tissue is made up of various fibrous units, which run parallel along its length. These are comprised of small muscle fibre compartments, known as fasciculi. The fibres are formed of myofibrils, which contain the contractile proteins needed for force generation.

Muscular force is transferred from the muscles to the skeleton via tendons. These are strong, inelastic, strap-like structures that connect the bones.

Body movements are controlled by the action of the muscles pulling on the bones. Bones are covered with a tough outer tissue called the periosteum onto which tendons are attached.

                                                     Goggle file



Tendon: tough, inelastic fibres which wrap around the end of the muscle and attach it to the outer layer of the bone.

Epimysium: the tough membrane that surrounds the whole muscle belly and holds the smaller fasciculi units together.

Perimysium: the membrane which surrounds the bundles of muscle fibres, which are called fasciculi.

Endomysium : the membrane that surrounds the individual muscle fibres, which contain the myofibrils.

Myofibril: the smallest unit, or fibril, within the individual muscle fibres. The myofibril is made up of smaller units, or chain-like lengths, called sarcomeres which are the working units of the muscle.

Bone: Body movements are controlled by the action of the muscles pulling on the bones. Bones are covered with a tough outer tissue called the Periosteum unto which tendon are attached

Force generation and sliding filament theory

· Muscular force is created by the action of myosin pulling on actin.

· When they’re stimulated, the hook-like heads of the myosin protein attach to the actin and rotate.

· ATP provides the energy for the movement.

Notes

The explanation for how muscles work is called the ‘sliding filament theory.’ It states that force is generated through the interaction of two small contractile proteins called ‘actin’ and ‘myosin.’ These are arranged in a series of compartments called ‘sarcomeres,’ which span the length of the myofibril.
                                           
                                                 Goggle File

When they’re appropriately stimulated, hook-like structures along the length of the myosin protein, called heads, attach to the actin and rotate. This pulls on the thin actin filaments and draws the ends of the sarcomere compartment inwards. The characteristic contraction of muscles is caused by multiple sarcomeres shortening simultaneously.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy for the movement. The interaction of the myosin heads with the actin is stimulated by nervous input.

Exercise and the skeletal muscle

Type 1 (slow-twitch)

Relatively low force generation - Respond well to aerobic/ endurance training

Slow to fatigue - Good blood supply and increased mitochondria.

Type 2b (fast-twitch)

Relatively high force generation - Respond well to high resistance.

Quicker to fatigue - Poor blood supply, fewer mitochondria.

When they’re appropriately stimulated, muscle fibres will increase their relative capabilities.

Type 1 fibres respond well to aerobic and endurance training, are slow to fatigue, require a good blood supply with increased mitochondria and have relatively low force generation.

Type 2b fibres respond well to high resistance activities, are quicker to fatigue, work with a poor blood supply and fewer mitochondria and generate a relatively high force.

Notes

There are a variety of different muscle fibres, each one of which is suited to a certain type of activity. They can be vaguely grouped into three categories: type 1 (or slow-twitch); type 2a (or intermediate) and type 2b (or fast-twitch fibres). Type 1 and type 2b represent opposite ends of the exercise scale – the latter is suited to short bursts of high-intensity work while the former responds well to long-duration activities performed at lower intensities.

Muscle anatomy

Human movement is the product of joint structure, muscle configuration and muscle activation.

Notes

The range and capability of human movement is made possible through a variety of joint types, muscle configurations and sequences of muscle activation. Performing an exercise safely, without the risk of injury, requires you to activate muscles with the correct joint alignment. For this reason, it’s important that you appreciate how movement is generated and controlled.

Muscles of the shoulder joint

· Formed by the articulation of the scapula and humerus.

· A shallow ball-and-socket joint.

· Superficial muscles: pectoralis major, latissmus dorsi and deltoids.

                                             CYQ File
Notes

The shoulder joint is formed by the articulation of the scapula and the humerus. The round head of the humerus interacts with the scapula to form a shallow ball-and-socket joint, which allows for a generous range of movement and a wide variety of potential joint actions. Large, superficial muscles, such as the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and the deltoids, provide the majority of movement at this joint.

Teres minor: part of the rotator cuff which helps to stabilise the shoulder joint. It runs laterally from the scapulae to the humerus, and helps with abduction and lateral rotation.

Suprasinatus: part of the rotator cuff which helps to stabilise the shoulder joint. It runs superiorly from the scapula to the top of the humerus and helps with shoulder abduction.

Infraspinatus: part of the rotator cuff which helps to stabilise the shoulder joint. It runs laterally from the scapulae (slightly higher than the teres minor) to the humerus. It helps with horizontal extension, lateral rotation and abduction.

Subscapularis: part of the rotator cuff which helps to stabilise the shoulder joint. It runs from the underside of the scapula to the front of the humerus and helps with internal rotation and adduction.

                                           Google file

Muscles of the shoulder girdle

The shoulder girdle:

· Formed by the articulation of the scapulae and clavicles.

· Trapezius, rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles act to create elevation, retraction and depression.

                                              CYQ File

The shoulder girdle is comprised of the scapulae and clavicles. It needs to move in concert with the shoulder joint in order to enable the complex movements of the upper limb. The upper back of the shoulder girdle is occupied by the trapezius, rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles. These allow for various combinations of elevation, retraction and depression movements to occur.

Anterior shoulder girdle muscles:

· Pectoralis minor and serratus anterior.

· Arranged to enable protraction and depression of the shoulder girdle.

                                              CYQ File
Notes

· The pectoralis minor and serratus anterior muscles originate from the costal bones and run to the anterior surfaces of the scapulae area. The anterior-inferior alignment of these muscles enables them both to protract and depress the shoulder girdle.

· When combined with the appropriate shoulder joint action, these muscles assist the types of pushing movements associated with performing a press-up or throwing a punch.

Superficial musculature of the vertebral column

Major superficial muscles of the spine:

· Rectus abdominis.

· Internal obliques.

· External obliques.

· Erector spinae.


   CYQ File

Notes

The vertebral column is comprised of a series of irregular vertebral bones, which are predominantly linked by cartilaginous, slightly moveable joints. These are separated by intervertebral discs.

Gross movement control of the spine is achieved via the major muscles of the trunk: the rectus abdominis, obliques and erector spinae. These enable the spine to be flexed, rotated, and extended. When they’re working unilaterally they pull the spine into lateral flexion.

Posterior musculature of the vertebral column

     CYQ File

Notes

Superficial musculature of the spine:

The multifidus runs from the sacrum to the cervical spine. It links small sections of vertebrae together – each origin is linked to every 2nd and 4th vertebrae above it. It facilitates control of flexion and rotation in the vertebral column. It’s considered to be a key component of the core musculature.

The quadratus lumborum runs from the iliac crest to the lumbar vertebrae and lower ribs. It helps to laterally flex and extend the spine and also assists in laterally tilting the pelvis.

The pelvic girdle

· Comprised of six bones: ilium, ischium and pubis (a pair of each).

· Control and support is provided via ligaments and muscles.

                                                      CYQ File
Notes

Most of the main hip and knee musculature originates the pelvic girdle, or is attached in some way. This is why it’s important that we examine its structure in more detail.

The pelvic girdle has two halves; each is made up of an ilium, ischium and pubis. The halves are joined at the pubis and the sacrum.

Stability and control of the pelvis is provided through a combination of muscular and ligamentous control.

The musculature of the hip can roughly be divided in to those which primarily flex (i.e. the Ilicaus or psoas and the rectus femoris) or extend (i.e. the gluteus maximus and hamstrings), and those which adduct (i.e. the adductor longus, brevis or magnus, the pectinius and gracilis) and abduct (the piriformis and tensor facia latae and the Gluteus minimus or medius). A lot of these muscles are also involved in other hip movements, especially rotational movements.

Hip musculature

Hip flexion = Rectus femoris - Iliacaus/psoas (iliopsoas)

Hip extension = Gluteus maximus – Hamstrings

Adduction = Adductor longus/ brevis /magnus - Pectinius and gracilis 

Abduction = Gluteus minimus/ medius - Piriformis and tensor facia latae

The musculature of the hip can be roughly divided in to those which primarily flex (i.e. the Ilicaus or psoas and the rectus femoris) or extend (i.e. the gluteus maximus and hamstrings), and those which adduct (i.e. the adductor longus, brevis or magnus, the pectinius and gracilis) and abduct (the piriformis and tensor facia latae and the Gluteus minimus or medius). A lot of these muscles are also involved in other hip movements, especially rotational movements

Muscles of the knee 






1. Rectus femoris: part of the quadriceps which originates at the ilium and inserts at the front of the tibia. It enables flexion of the hip and extension of the knee (as if kicking a football).

2. Vastus medialis: the medial portion of quadriceps which originates on the medial surface of the femur and inserts at the front of the tibia. It enables extension of the knee.

3. Vastus intermedius: the central portion of the quadriceps which originates on the anterior lateral portion of the femur and inserts at the front of the tibia. It enables extension of the knee.

5. Vastus lateralis: the lateral portion of the quadriceps which originates from the lateral portion of the femur and inserts at the front of the tibia. It enables extension of the knee.

Although the four quadriceps originate from different locations, they share a common insertion at the front of the tibia. They all help with knee extension.

The rectus femoris portion of the quadriceps is the only part which passes over both the hip and the knee joint (termed bi-axial); it is also a hip flexor.

Notes

The primary movements of the knee joint are flexion and extension. Muscles associated with these movements are generally located at either the anterior or posterior of the hip and femur.

The three hamstring muscles, which help the hip to extend and the knee to flex are the biceps femoris, the semimembranosus and the simitendinosus.

· The biceps femoris is the lateral portion of the hamstrings. It originates at the ischium and posterior aspect of the femur and inserts at the head of the fibula. It enables extension of the hip and flexion of the knee.

· The semimembranosus is the medial portion of the hamstrings. It originates from the ischium and inserts at the medial surface of the tibia. It enables extension of the hip and flexion of the knee.

· The semitendinosus is the medial portion of the hamstrings. It originates from the ischium and inserts at the medial surface of the tibia. It enables extension of the hip and flexion of the knee.

In a flexed position, the knee is also capable of rotational movements; the biceps femoris can help with external rotation, while the semimembranosus and simitendinosus can assist with internal rotation.

Planes of movement

The three basic planes are:

· Frontal plane: a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

· Sagittal plane: a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right parts.

· Transverse plane: a horizontal cross-section through the body which separates the upper and lower body.

                                         CYQ File
Notes

By focusing on the activities of single muscles, you can often miss the more fundamental elements of human movement. A simpler way to describe the way in which body moves is to separate it into planes of movement. These can be described as imaginary flat surfaces that represent anatomical cross-sections along which movement can occur.

Axis of movement

· Medial-lateral axis: passes through the sagittal plane.

· Anterior-posterior axis: passes through the frontal plane.

· Longitudinal axis: passes through the transverse plane. 

                                   CYQ File
Notes

An axis is a theoretical point around which rotation occurs. Each plane is associated with a specific axis and each axis passes through the plane at right angles. Most axes of human movement are formed at the joints.

Movements and planes

Squatting - Sagittal plane or medial-lateral axis

     = Movement is mainly flexion and extension, which uses the sagittal axis.

Throwing a ball - Transverse plane or longitudinal axis

     = Movement is primarily rotational, meaning it is transverse.

Side stepping - Frontal plane or anterior-posterior axis

     = Movement is mainly adduction and abduction, so it is prim


Squatting is primarily a sagittal activity as most of the joint actions are either flexion or extension.

Side stepping is a predominantly frontal activity as the major joint actions are likely to be adduction and abduction of the hip.

Throwing a ball requires aggressive rotation of the hips, spine and shoulder. Therefore, it’s a mainly transverse movement.

The musculoskeletal system and its relation to exercise 

· The cellular structure of muscle fibres and sliding filament theory.

· The effects that different exercises have on muscle fibre type.

· The function and location of the skeletal muscle involved in physical activity.

· Joint and muscle actions.

· Axes and planes of movement.

Another Things You Need To Know 

Postural and core stability

The ‘core’ refers to the trunk of the body (excluding arms and legs).

This  will cover:

· Muscles and ligaments that stabilise the spine.

· Problems of poor alignment and core function.

· Flexibility to support and restore good motion.

Notes

· One of the most pervasive trends in the health and fitness industry has been the continual emphasis on training the core of the body. The core is considered to be the trunk of the body; the part left over when the arms and legs are discounted.

· The core is often misconstrued as being only the abdominals and lower back; indeed, the abdominals have probably been focused on too much in many training programmes around the country. In this section we will be looking into the different muscles and ligaments that help to stabilise the spine and support movement around the core. It’s important to appreciate the problems that can result when the core musculature doesn’t function as it should. Then, to finish, we will look into a few aspects of flexibility that can help restore good movement and function around the body.

Ligaments of the spine

                                              CYQ File

Anterior longitudinal – prevents excess extension of the spine. 

Posterior longitudinal – prevents excess flexion of the spine.

Interspinous – prevents excess flexion of the spine.

Intertransverse – prevents excess lateral flexion of the spine.

Deep muscles of the spine


     CYQ File

Notes

1. Intertransversarii are the small muscles that attach between the transverse processes of the spine. They help to bring about lateral flexion and control smaller movements between vertebrae.

2. Interspinalis muscles attach between the spinous processes of the spine and help to bring about extension of the spinal segments while also controlling the smaller movements between vertebrae.

3. Rotatores attach from the spinous process of one vertebra to the transverse process of the vertebrae immediately below. They help to bring about rotation between spinal segments and help to control the smaller movements between vertebrae. 

Muscles of the core

  CYQ File

Notes

The middle muscle layer within the core help to provide stability and to create intra-abdominal pressure that stabilises the spine during movement. The muscles that play a role in this stabilising process are:

1. Transversus abdominis: wraps around the body attaching to the lower ribs and the pelvis. It functions by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure to stabilise the spine.

2. Internal obliques: situated over the transversus abdominis. They help compress the abdominal contents and provide rotation and lateral flexion of the spine.

3. External obliques: situated over the internal obliques and transversus abdominis and wrap around the body. They help compress the abdominal contents and provide rotation and lateral flexion of the spine.

4. Multifidus: composed of a series of smaller muscles that connect the spinous processes of the spine to the transverse processes two or three vertebrae below. They help to provide rotation and extension of the spine and to hold the lumbar segments in an extended position.

5 .Diaphragm: primary muscle that initiates breathing. In relation to the core the diaphragm contracts downwards and helps create intra-abdominal pressure to help stabilise the spine in conjunction with all the other muscles in the group.

6. Pelvic floor: composed of several small muscles that act like a hammock at the base of the body to hold the organs. In relation to the core, they contract simultaneously with the diaphragm and other core muscles to create intra-abdominal pressure and stabilise the spine.

Transversus abdominis: Compress abdominal contents. Draws the waist in compressing abdominal contents.

= Draws the waist in compressing abdominal contents.

Intertransversarii: Laterally flex spinal segments. Small deep muscles connecting transverse processes of the spine.

= Small deep muscles connecting transverse processes of the spine.

Multifidus: Rotate and extend the spine. Long group of small muscles that rotate and extend the spine.

= Long group of small muscles that rotate and extend the spine.

Diaphragm: Draw down to increase intra-abdominal pressure. Breathing muscle that helps create pressure in the core.

 = Breathing muscle that helps create pressure in the core

Postural and core stability

Muscles and ligaments that stabilise the spine.
Problems of poor alignment and core function.
Aspects of flexibility which can support and restore good motion.

Core function

Deep, middle and outer layer trunk muscles need to function together for effective core movement and stability.

Core musculature that is poorly prepared to function in unison can lead to chronic wear and tear or to possible acute injury and trauma of the spine.

The deep and middle muscle layers of the core work together with the outer layer of muscles to help stabilise the spine. It is the outer layer is more responsible for the large movements that are possible at the core.

The rectus abdominis that joins the pubis, ribs and sternum creates spinal flexion forces. The erector spinae group that runs up the length of the back creates spinal extension forces. The obliques (particularly the external obliques) combine with the abdominals and the erector spinae to create rotational movement of the spine.

Remember that ‘good core function’ is described as the ability of the trunk to support the forces of the arms and legs in the safest, strongest and most effective manner. Therefore it’s important that all these trunk muscles work and communicate together. Failure of the core muscles to function effectively together leaves the spine potentially open to chronic dysfunction, wear and tear or (even worse) to acute overload and injury when required to respond to a heavy load.

                                             CYQ File

Notes

Commonly observed postures in people who adopt long term seated positions can be summarised as follows:
Thoracic kyphosis and lengthened mid traps and rhomboids.
Protracted shoulders and shortened pectorals.
Extended cervical spine and shortened upper trapezius.
Posteriorly tilted pelvis and lumbar flexion.

Postural performance

Core muscle dysfunction can affect movement patterns as well. The image of the woman squatting shows:
Excess hip flexion.
Excess lumbar extension.
Centre of gravity shifted forward over the toes.

This may be the result of an anterior tilt in the pelvis, which is characterised by lengthened abdominals and shortened lumbar erectors and hip flexors.




                                    CYQ File

While core muscle function can be affected by dominant static postural position, it can also affect the way we move. The length tension relationships of the core muscles can draw an individual out of optimal alignment or position during movement. This will result in certain muscle groups being required to resist a greater percentage of the load than others.

Core exercises

Plank exercise for stabilising the core.

Female:
Extended lumbar, shortened erector spinae and lengthened abdominals.
Flexed hips and shortened iliopsoas.

Male:
Thoracic flexion with shortened abdominals and lengthened mid trapezius and rhomboids.
Protracted shoulders with shortened pectorals.

                                    CYQ File
Notes

Performing core exercises can form an important part of any training programme. Exercise technique should be monitored very carefully when exposing different clients to different core stabilisation exercises; it is not necessarily the case that every core exercise will be suitable for the client.

Notes

Performing core exercises can form an important part of any training programme. Exercise technique should be monitored very carefully when exposing different clients to different core stabilisation exercises; it is not necessarily the case that every core exercise will be suitable for the client.


                                              CYQ File

Types of stretching
Restoring effective function: Plan a stretching programme that helps address the issue of shortened muscles, with a choice of three types of stretch:

Static.
Dynamic.
PNF.

A vital element in helping redress core dysfunction and other postural deviations is a personalised programme of stretching that meets the client’s needs. Identifying what postural adaptations have occurred in each client and then planning appropriate stretches that help address the shortened muscles is important for restoring effective function.

Along with selecting the correct muscles to be stretched, it is also important to choose the right type of stretch for the right purpose. There are three major types of stretch: static, dynamic and PNF.


    Static stretching


    Maintenance stretch – maintains flexibility.
    Development stretch – increases flexibility.

                CYQ File


Notes

Static stretching can be used for both maintenance of muscle length or for developing muscle length further. It is also the simplest type of stretch. It involves holding a limb or joint towards the end range of motion and allowing time for the muscle tissue to stop contracting and the tissues to relax and lengthen.

In a maintenance stretch the limb will be held at the end range just until the muscles relax; normally within 15 to 30 seconds. A developmental static stretch usually involves three stages of progressive stretch where the limb is moved slightly further each time the muscles relax. Care must be taken not to push beyond muscular end range.

Dynamic stretching

· Effective as part of warm-up.

· Promotes blood flow and elasticity.

· Reduces risk of injury.


CYQ File

Notes

· Dynamic stretching, as the name implies, involves movement. It tends to be used as part of a warm-up and should be based around the exercise that will follow it. The movements used should progress from mid to end range and start slowly, increasing in speed to promote blood flow and elasticity of the tissues.

· Dynamic stretching helps to reduce the risk of injury; specifically by warming the muscle tissues in the types of movement that are about to follow in the exercise programme. Care should be taken not to use unnecessary explosive movements that could strain tissues before they are ready.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF)

Uses phases of static stretching followed by muscular contraction.
Should only be applied to thoroughly warm muscles and by an experienced practitioner.
CYQ File

Notes

PNF stands for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. It is a way of taking advantage of the underlying neuromuscular feedback loops inherent in muscle tissue. It uses phases of static stretching followed by muscular contraction.

An end range the static stretch engages the stretch reflex which causes contraction. Within 15-30 seconds the contraction eases off. The subsequent muscular contraction engages the inverse stretch reflex which stimulates relaxation in the muscle. Combining these two approaches in PNF can provide significant range of motion improvements. PNF should only be applied to thoroughly warm muscles and by an experienced practitioner.

Stay in touch for more fitness for life


All copyrights to their respective owners. . 

►► Like, Share, Join  FB Page & Follow me on Twitter